If you take the time to plan out a fruit and berry orchard, you can ensure that your family will have access to a wide variety of delectable fruits and berries in the years to come. As a result, you ought to (as the proverb goes) take your time in organizing your plot, and the purpose of this article is to demonstrate how to build a layout for an orchard that contains fruit trees.
When planning the placement of the site, it is essential to provide a spot that is open and sunny and has a high water table. It is not a good idea to plant it in a valley since the chilly air, and strong water currents there have a tendency to bury it during the spring floods. Following the completion of an outside examination of the garden plot, you should compile a list of the necessary preparatory actions and write it down in your diary.
Create a drawing of the garden's layout on a sheet of paper that is distinct from your garden diary. The garden can be in front of, to the side of, or behind the home; however, the trees and plants should be arranged in a north-south orientation for increased light, and there should be three distinct zones. These can be organized such that one is in front of the other, or you can separate them into three distinct spaces that are positioned at the extreme extremities of the overall dacha area.
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Please write down the names of the fruit and berry crops, together with brief descriptions of each, on the page of the garden diary that is designated for that purpose, and note their placement in the plot area under the appropriate numbers in the diagram.
When designing the layout of your berry garden, it is important to take the peculiarities of the plants into direct consideration. For instance, blackcurrants flourish when they are surrounded by other plants, whereas buckthorn and lingonberry tend to be fairly uncooperative with their surroundings. Because of this, they need to be planted in different locations. Buckthorn, laurel roses, and hawthorn are all suitable options for use as landscape decoration in rest places. Buckthorn can be planted as a hedge, and they make for an attractive sight when spaced apart on a well-kept lawn.
Berry trees, according to the opinions of certain owners, should often be planted along the perimeter of the plot. In this scenario, a portion of the land is cleaned so that you can use it for various types of agriculture or places (recreation, sports, etc.). This arrangement is appropriate if a green fence does not encircle the plot or if the berry bushes themselves are capable of serving this purpose with the features that they possess on their own (thorny, lush, etc.).
You must plant the berry bushes closely together. It acts as a natural regulator to ensure that plants develop to their full potential, are resistant to disease, and produce abundant harvests.
The variety of berry bushes that you have is quite crucial to consider. Take some time to plan ahead and determine how many of each species and variety of berries you will need to grow in order to give your family fresh berries and preserve some for the colder months. Twenty raspberry bushes, three to four bushes of each type of currant and gooseberry, brambles, honeysuckle, and willows, are required to provide enough fruit for a family of four to five persons. Give yourself some breathing room for the arrival of new alien species; they will inevitably enter your field of vision at some point. If the berry orchard is well-planned, it will grow and provide fruit usually for seven to twelve years, after which it will be progressively rejuvenated or moved to another area.
Make a drawing of the arrangement of the fruit crops on the following page that is vacant in your garden journal. Set aside a floor space of roughly 43 square feet for every tree that you will use for growing a crop. It is important to prevent the plants from becoming too overgrown. Trees have the potential to outgrow their space and become competitive with or even dominant over one another. The holes for planting should be set 13 to 15 feet (four to 4.5 meters) apart along the row. Keep a minimum distance of 8 to 10 feet (2.5 to 3 meters) between rows. It is important to pay attention to the kind of crop. For instance, the majority of farms are currently transitioning to growing colonial apple and pear trees because these fruits are the most important garden crops in Dacha Agriculture. These species are significantly more diminutive, but their production is virtually on par with that of the taller crops. Plants that grow in a column require less maintenance, are more resistant to disease, and are less likely to be damaged by frost.
It is adequate to have one to two specimens of each tree species for the average family. It is important to have early, mid, and late types in the garden so that you can harvest fresh fruit during the warm season and yet have fruit that you can preserve for the colder months. Two cherries, preferably early and late varieties, from the orchard crop are sufficient. Instead of planting intermediate cherries, plant two different kinds of cherries, and they are going to produce a yield following the early cherries. You will need one quince, two to three plum trees, and one quince on which to graft another kind or variety later.
It is sufficient to have one or two varieties of frost-resistant apricots. Using grafting techniques, you may take two or three apple trees and turn them into six or eight different varieties of apples with varying ripening times. Remember to leave some space for rare and unusual species. Take care to replace walnut trees in their own individual plots. Under the protection of this crop's canopy, very little else is able to sustain life. If you enjoy hazelnuts, plant them in the front row, where they will receive more sunlight and be less likely to be shaded by the larger trees. 11–12 fruit trees will eventually bear 18–20 different types of fruit between them.
It is essential to take advantage of the newer types that have been developed in order to keep the garden free from illness and make it last for a longer period of time. They are more resistant to diseases, pests, and changes in the weather, and they have a longer period of time during which they flower and produce fruit. You can locate kinds suited to your region in catalogs and other types of literature, including specifics such as the zone in which they thrive. When purchasing seedlings, it is important to check with a knowledgeable person first. Remember! If you plant inferior seedlings in your garden, you will have more labor and care to do, but the yield and quality of the fruit will not meet your expectations.
When you begin planting your garden in the fall, you will need to begin by digging planting pits according to your plan and preparing a fertilizer mixture in close proximity to each pit. The amount of fertilizer required will vary depending on the characteristics of the soil.
You may only prepare a planting hole of an estimated size in the fall, as the actual size will be determined by the size of the root system, which will vary in proportion to the age of the seedlings that you purchase. The diameter of the planting hole is estimated to be about 23 by 23 inches (60 by 60 cm) for seedlings that are 2 years old. The diameter of the planting hole for seedlings that are 3 years old may be increased to 27 to 30 inches (70 to 80 cm), but this will be determined after the seedlings have been planted in the hole.
In the area around each hole, combine topsoil, humus, and peat. Before planting seedlings in the spring, add one cup of wood ash, one cup of quicklime, and two hundred and fifty grams of nitrocellulose to the mixture. Combine thoroughly.
The spring is the ideal time to set seedlings in their new homes. During the time that the plant is actively growing, the seedlings will get stronger, and the root system will get stronger as well. After that, throughout the warm season that spans spring, summer, and autumn, young trees will adjust to their new environment.
When you are on your way to the cottage, it is best not to be in a rush to acquire saplings from particular dealers that you are not familiar with. It is best to purchase young trees from a farm or nursery rather than grow them yourself. Here you may be more guaranteed to buy the correct release variety for the fruit or berry harvest you want.
Conduct a thorough inspection of the seedlings that were chosen. You should not buy them if the roots are dry, the trunks are bowed, the bark is damaged, or the gums are missing. Remember! There is no amount of the seller's assurance that can make up for the time lost.
A rooting agent or other growth stimulants should be soaked into seedlings for one to two days prior to planting. Put together a receptacle with some clay putty that has some "Pseudomonas fluorescent bacterium" biopharmaceutical in it. It is possible to employ other bio fungicides that are compatible with the mixing process in the tank.
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Put some potting soil cones in the holes for around two to three weeks before you want to start seeding seedlings. During the course of this week, the cones will become more stable, and the seedlings that you planted will be placed in the holes in the appropriate manner. After the seedlings have been prepared, soak them in potting soil, place them into the hole, lay the roots on the cones so that they do not break upwards, and then fill the hole with potting soil until it is two-thirds full. Place a pail of water inside the container. After it has been absorbed, you should add the remaining potting soil or bonsai soil to the container. Strike the stake with the hammer to fasten the young tree to the support in a figure-of-eight arrangement. Saplings that are not securely attached will wobble in the wind and rip off the fine roots that are necessary for maintaining the connection between the plant and the soil.
When you are planting, you want to make sure that the root neck is placed at the appropriate depth. If it is dug too deeply, the tree could die without apparent cause anywhere between five and ten years later (especially on thick soils). It is ideal to "hide" the root neck portion of the plant from the dry upper layer on light sandy loam soils (especially in the south), which can be accomplished by burying it three to four inches (eight to ten centimeters) in the soil. Immersion does not disrupt the typical growth pattern of trees like figs, currants, plums, or apple trees when the seedlings are in the process of forming adventitious roots or shoots. The seedlings of these plant species are able to rapidly re-establish their root system, most of the time even on soil that does not have an adequate amount of moisture.
When planting rootstock seedlings, the root neck should be at or slightly above the level of the planting hole (between 0.8 and 1.2 inches, or 2 to 3 centimeters) (no more). It is recommended that the grafting point on seedlings that have been grafted be 2-3 inches (5-8 cm) above the rootstock. Inexperienced gardeners frequently get rootstocks and grafting mixed up when they plant seedlings up to the grafting point. In this scenario, the rootstock will become deeply ingrained in the ground, which will result in the tree passing away before its natural time.
If the root neck has been accurately recognized and the seedling has been planted 1.5 to 2 inches (4-5 cm) above the soil, then the tree has been planted correctly.
In the area surrounding the planting spot, compact the dirt. Build a roller with a height of 2.2 to 2.7 inches (5-7 cm) at a radius of 12 to 20 inches (30 to 50 cm) from the trunk of the tree, and pour water from two to three buckets. The seedlings will be ingested into the soil at the same time as the soil takes up the water. Make sure the root neck is always between 0.8 and 1.2 inches (two to three centimeters) above the soil. After watering, if additional soil is required, cover it with a thin layer of mulch made of finer particles (peat or humus, sawdust). If live seedlings are acquired and planted appropriately, your garden will sprout its first shoots in 2-3 weeks.
Brush the seedlings with a solution containing chalk and clay, and then apply biological agents for the control of pests and diseases or a solution containing copper alum.
In order to insulate the trunk, You should use multiple layers of burlap, non-woven mulch, paper, and any other appropriate material.
The wire mesh should be buried in the ground anywhere from two to four inches (five to ten centimeters) deep to protect the trunk from rabbits and other animals.
After there has been a snowfall that is sufficiently heavy, pack the snow around the trunk so that it protects it from rats.